What are the ways and types of lighting?

Mode and type of lighting

1.Mode of lighting

Lighting equipment can be divided into four categories according to the way it is installed and the functions it performs.

(1)General lighting

Usually set for lighting the whole environment, the uniform distribution of lamps in the whole place is called general lighting, general lighting can obtain more uniform horizontal illumination. For the working position density is VERY large AND THE ILLUMINATION DIRECTION HAS NO special requirements of the occasion, or by the production technology CONDITION LIMITATION CANNOT INSTALL THE LOCAL ILLUMINATION OR THE MIXED ILLUMINATION OCCASION, CAN USE THE SEPARATE GENERAL ILLUMINATION TO ACHIEVE.

(2).Zoned general lighting

According to the actual situation of the working face of the lighting occasion, the lamps and lanterns are centralized or grouped and evenly distributed above the working area, so as to improve the lighting level of a specific area. This lighting method is called zoning general lighting.

(3)Local lighting

In order to meet the lighting requirements of some specific parts and layout of lighting called local lighting. Local illumination can only illuminate a small area, and local illumination can be installed when high illumination is required in local locations and the illumination direction is required. Local lighting should be used in the following cases:High illuminance is required locally.

The extent to which normal illumination is inaccessible because of occlusion.

People with reduced visual function need higher illumination.

Reflection glare needs to be reduced in the workspace.

To enhance the light in a certain direction to enhance the texture.

For general lighting is blocked or need to overcome the reflection of the light curtain in the work area and its vicinity.

The use of an incandescent light source for local illumination is beneficial when the stalling effect caused by the gas discharge light source is affected.

However, local lighting can only illuminate a limited area, so it is stipulated that local lighting should not be installed only in a workplace.

(4)Mixed lighting

The lighting composed of general lighting, general lighting and local lighting is called mixed lighting. For places with high visual requirements for the working position and special requirements for the irradiation direction, and general lighting or zoning general lighting can not meet the requirements, mixed lighting is often used. At this time, the illumination of general illumination should be selected by no less than 5%~10% of the total illumination of the mixed illumination, and the minimum is not less than 20lx.

Different lighting methods have their own advantages and disadvantages, and they cannot be simply separated in lighting design. According to the situation of the design site, one or several suitable lighting methods can be selected at the same time. The requirements for lighting grading ranges and comparisons corresponding to visual work are shown in Table 7.8. The illuminance standard value of different building lighting shall be designed according to the Design Standard of Building Lighting (GB 50034-2004).


2.Types of lighting

According to the nature of the actual use of lighting, it can be divided into 5 categories.

(1)Normal lighting

Indoor and external lighting for use under normal conditions. Usually used alone, can also be used with emergency lighting, duty lighting at the same time, but should set up an independent control line.

(2)Emergency lighting

After the normal lighting is extinguished due to a fault, the lighting for continuing to work is called standby lighting; Lighting to ensure the safety of people in danger is called safety lighting; When an accident occurs to ensure personnel evacuation of lighting called evacuation lighting. Emergency lighting should be set up in places where work interruption or misoperation is liable to cause explosions, fires and personal accidents, or will cause serious political consequences and economic losses. Emergency lighting should be arranged in workplaces that may cause accidents as well as main passageways and entrances. Emergency lighting must be instantaneous ignition of reliable light source, generally using incandescent lamp or halogen tungsten lamp. Gas discharge lamps are also used when emergency lighting is frequently lit as part of normal lighting and when failure does not require switching of power supply.
Standby lighting for temporary work, the illuminance is not less than 10% of the general lighting; The illuminance of safety lighting is not less than 5% of general lighting; Ensure lighting for evacuation. The illumination on the main passage should not be less than 0.5lx.

Emergency lighting

(3)The lighting on duty

Lighting for duty personnel during non-working hours. It is usually advisable to set up on-duty lighting in important workshops, warehouses, or large stores and banks that are not operated during three shifts. Duty lighting may USE a part THAT can be controlled separately by normal lighting or a part or all of emergency lighting.

(4)The guard lighting

For lighting near the perimeter of the guard area. It can be installed in the factory or warehouse area according to the need of the guard task.

(5)Barriers to lighting

Lighting used to indicate obstacle signs on two structures installed on taller buildings around an airport or on a river accessible by boat. It shall be installed according to the relevant regulations of civil aviation and transportation departments.